Water reticulation systems are water distribution networks which have to be collected and then treated before distributed to the consumer.
- Nowadays, water systems are commonly delivered through an infrastructure that consists of pipes which are typically constructed from materials such as plastic, metal or even concrete.
- Water is usually delivered to its destination with the use of pressure and the energy created by that pressure.
The local governments mostly own these delivery systems. The system must be designed and planned by city planners, city engineers and consultants who are hired to figure out every detail of the system before the installations are implemented. The factors to be considered for the implementation of the system are the size of the pipes to be used, the pipe’s location, plans for future expansion, calculation of the likelihood of leakage, various pressure factors and how close these systems are to fire departments.
A water reticulation system helps water move from the original source to the consumer. Considering the volume of water required is another factor when planning and designing the system. The water moves with the help of energy and must overcome any resistance it encounters when changing elevations. The factors mentioned previously should be paid attention to as they can affect operational costs. Gravity can be used to aid this movement and is helpful for a cheaper operation. The use of gravity will allow the water to flow from the elevated reservoirs and then be distributed and controlled with the use of valves. Gravity flow systems are generally preferred and considered as reliable at all times.
It is important to consider the pump type and its capacity and ability to maintain control of the water’s movement to choose the correct system. The pipeline sizes must be planned according to the water demand of each outlet. The concept of this system is similar to the branching of a tree.
Materials used for the system such as the pumps, tanks and any other components are easily replaceable. Buried pipes are used for a longer period of time. Typical materials used when constructing these systems are PVC, polythene, galvanised and/or black steel and copper. When selecting the type of pipe, one must take into consideration the pipe’s life expectancy, the safe working pressure of the pipe, its ease of bending and its ease of installation, how much it will cost and the type of pipe connection that will be required. It is also best to select a pipe that is resistant to corrosion, soil movement and vehicle loads.
The water reticulation system makes water distribution throughout developed areas simpler. In these systems, the dimensions of the pipes are economical and cutter valves are used less often as compared to other water delivery systems. However, when a pipe breaks, due to the intricate design of the system, there will not be water in that area until the repair of the pipe is finished.
It is observed that there must be regular checks and maintenance to prevent and solve any issue such as leaking as well as to ensure that there is adequate water supplied. If issues are present repair must be done as quickly as possible.